Posof; is a sub-province of the province Ardahan of Turkey. Turkey is a however a country on continent Asia. www.posof.net; is a personal web site prepared to introduce Posof. Muhammet Bilgi (cardiologist) and Kamil Bilgi (Agriculture Engineer) brothers are the owners and the designers of the site.
GEOGRAPHICAL PROPERTIES OF POSOF
It locates in the East Anatolia Region of Turkey, at the north of the province Ardahan. Its periphery comprises, Acar and Batum Autonomous Republics, dependent to Gurcistan Republic, from west, Gurcistan Republic from east and north, Damal sub-province from north, and sub-province Şavşat ( Shavshat ) of the province Artvin. Posof lies over, 42° 30 north latitude, and 42° 43 east longitude. The city has an altitude of 1583m from the sea level while having an area of 606km2. The nearest railway station is in Kars, which is another province of Turkey. Posof fars 75km from Ardahan and 154km from Kars. Close to centrum there exist Posof Stream Vale which is surrounded by mountains of more than 3000m height. Posof Stream Vale, beginning from the bottom of the mountain Secedil, a prolongation of Yalnızçam Mountains, extends towards north-east. The base of this vale contains productive lands. Posof Stream combines with the river Kura of Gurcistan and ends up in Hazar Sea. The lake Alabalık( Alabalik ) is the largest lake of Posof. The region is higher and cooler when compared with the mean of Turkey and resembles to Black Sea in the manner of climate. The sub-province covered by lush vegetation and most of the year this keeps its green. It exists in a natural wooden area composed of oaks, pines, firs, spruces, beeches, elms, hornbeams and nuts. Primary resources: agriculture and animal-husbandry. The rate of agriculture convenient land is 48.2%. Barley, wheat, rye, bean, corn, apple, pear, plum, cherry, morello cherry, potato, cabbage, cucumber and onion are the agriculture products, while cattle, sheep, goat and mandate are the animals raised mostly.
Apiculture is one of the most important resources of the sub-province. With its specific properties and high quality the Caucas Bee Race exists only in Posof. The honey and raised queens receives much request including from abroad. (Keywords: The Caucas Bee, Caucas Race Bee, Caucas Bee Race, Caucas Honey)
THE HISTORY OF POSOF
In the past Posof was named as Duğur ( Dugur ) . Posof, is the urban area Kur and Çoruh ( Choruh ) , named as High Kur during old age times, which comprises sub-province Çıldır of Kars, Ardahan and its sub-province Hanak, Artvin and its sub-provinces ( Ardanuç ) Ardanuc, Şavşat and Boçka ( Bochka ) . Mounted nomadic Iskit Turks from north of Caucases had took the area from Urartu crowd in the years 680 B.C. and had ruled for about 500 years. Later than Arsak Turks, coming from Horasan, live had lived in Posof in the years 150 B.C. 430 A.C. It is also known that after Arsaks Pecenek and Oguz Turks had lived in Posof. Posof and its peripherehad passed into reign of Sasani Country, East Rome Empire, Georgian Bagrats and Abbasids. After Abbasids, Seljuks ruled the region.
After the city Ani had been taken by Seljukian Sultan Alparslan in the year 1064, the Seljukian army, commanded by Ahmet of Danishment, passed the mount Arsiyan ( Arshiyan ) through Shavshat and besieged the Castle Kol in Village Kol which still remains there. They defeated the Georgian army and captured the area in the year 1080. However Seljukians had not been able to hold the region long and it had passed to the rule of Ilhans. At the age of Ilhans, Ortodox Kipjak Turks had become the half independent ruler of the region. Later then, with command of Lala Mustafa Pasha, the commander Abdurrahman, the frontier commander of Ardahan, had passed the mountain Ilgar and captured the whole Posof Walley and Ahiska region with his own forces at August 25, 1578. Consequently Posof was joined to Ottomans. Erzurum governer Lala Mustafa Pasha settled Cildir as a sate centred at Ahiska and so made Posof a frontier principality. The Russian forces left Erzurum, Kars and surrounding because of the revolution happened in 1917. At the end of 1917, Georgian had started activities near Posof Koblian while Armenies also in Erzurum-Kars-Ardahan. Georgians captured Ahiska, Ahirkelek and Posof by setting conatcts with some important men in Azgur, Ahiska and Posoh in 1919. Georgians left Posof according to the convention made between TBMM and Georgian governer on February 22, 1921. As a consequent Posof released from the enemy occupience on March 2, 1921. Later on March 2, 1923 it become a sub-province.
POPULATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF POSOF
According to recordings of year 2000 the population of the subprovince is 55438. Number of outgoing immigrants is 42703. So number inhabitants is 12735, 2861 of which stay in the center of the sub-province. The sub-province has 49 villages connnected to itself. This villages are divided into five main groups which are Yenikoy, Binbaşı Eminbey ( Major Eminbey ) , Gunluce, Aşık Zülali ( Bard Zulali ) and Gonulcalan.